Google Drive Private Sharing Requires a Google Account

Everybody says, “It’s easy, just use Google Drive. It’s free.”

And I’m sure Google wants you to think that.

And it is easy except for one type of sharing:

  • Password protected sharing to people who do not have a google account.

To be specific, here are the layers of sharing:

  1. Public. AKA Publish to the web. Everyone can view. Even strangers.
  2. Sharing with people by emailing them a link
    • Good News: do not need to have a google account
    • Bad news: ANYONE who has the link can view the file.
  3. Sharing with specific people only–ie only people who have the password
    • Bad news: REQUIRES a google account. In fact, the password to their google account is what protects the file from unauthorized eyes.

So the premium feature is sharing with ONLY SPECIFIC PEOPLE – WITHOUT a google account.

Box.com can do it with paid subscription only. As little as $10 or $5 / month.

Unlock PDF file



How to unlock a secured/protected PDF file so you can copy and paste or print from it

Option 1 : Ghostscript

Download portable Ghostscript from PortableApps.com :

Install Ghostscript.

  • NOTE: it does not really “install”. It just writes files to a particular folder.
  • TAKE NOTE OF THE FOLDER! You may also change its location and name if you like.
  • We will enter this foldername later.

Start the Windows program Notepad

Copy and paste the following text

  • You will have to CHANGE the names of the input and output files after you paste into Notepad.
  • (You might have to scroll right to see/get/copy all of this)
    gswin32c -dNOPAUSE -sDEVICE=pdfwrite -sOutputFile="OUTPUT PDF" "INPUT PDF"
    pause
        
  • INPUT PDF – this is the full path name to the file you want to unlock by converting
  • OUTPUT PDF – this is the full path name to the new file you want to create (the filename should not exist yet–but the folder should)
  • Example 1 of possible INPUT and OUTPUT PDF files:
    • INPUT: C:\users\johndoe\Downloads\some_file.pdf
    • OUTPUT: C:\users\johndoe\Downloads\some_file_unlocked.pdf
  • Example 2 possible of INPUT and OUTPUT PDF files:
    • INPUT: "C:\users\johndoe\Desktop\another file.pdf"
    • OUTPUT: "C:\users\johndoe\Desktop\another file unlocked.pdf"
  • If the folder path or file name contains spaces, the filename must be in “double quotes” (otherwise the quotes are optional)

Save the file as convert_pdf.bat in the bin sub-folder within the folder where you “installed” Ghostscript

  • Example save location: C:\user\johndoe\Downloads\CommonFiles\Ghostscript\bin\

Navigate to that bin sub-folder and double-click convert_pdf.bat to run it.

  • It should create an unlocked version of your file for you.

Option 2 : Upload to google drive (docs)

Then cut-n-paste from within google drive.

Option 3 : Upload to free zoho docs.

Then cut-n-paste from within zoho docs.

How to show Full Headers of an email message



You occasionally need to show full headers to debug spam or some malware attacks.

Unfortunately, the method to do this varies in every email program.

Here are some examples:

GMAIL (these things keep changing)

reply drop-down has “show original”

OUTLOOK: (these things keep changing)

message right-click has “options”

References:

spamcop

has several examples of email programs, as does

fraudaid

of all places

windows welcome login/logon screen hacks/tweaks



How to bypass windows logon / welcome screen and log on automatically

Often having just 1 user who has no password will do it.

Otherwise,

netplwiz.exe

First (must be done first), select the user who you want to log in automatically.
Then, uncheck the Users must enter a user name and password to use this computer box.

reference: http://www.sevenforums.com/tutorials/377-log-automatically-startup.html


How to hide all accounts but one but require a password for that account (if the account has one)

create the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\ProfileList\.DEFAULT with nothing in it.

Apparently that displays just the most recent user and “Other Users” (did not try it 4/9/2016)

References:

  • http://www.sevenforums.com/tutorials/182279-logon-screen-fix-showing-only-other-user-last-logged-user.html
    RIPPED TORN comment: http://www.sevenforums.com/2111856-post14.html
    hhaddow990 commet: http://www.sevenforums.com/1738383-post5.html
  • http://answers.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/forum/windows_7-desktop/recent-windows-7-update-change-welcome-screen-not/9539d070-2bac-4144-8dfc-0632aedb8f2b

How to Temporarily Bypass Automatic Logon at Startup and force the windows welcome logon screen to appear (IE, UNDO the above)

Let BIOS complete (or else you might get a “Stuck Key” error)

At the first windows screen (after BIOS done) hold down Shift key until you see the welcome log on screen.

You might want to change the logon background wallpaper image (below) to instruct users about the SHFIT key.

This does NOT display hidden accounts (“SpecialAccounts“).


Hide user from welcome screen (et al)

Put in SpecialAccounts list in registry and set it’s value to 0 (hidden; 1=unhide)

(Note: the ‘NT’ in WindowsNT in this reg key, not the regular ‘Windows’ without the ‘NT’)
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\WindowsNT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon\SpecialAccounts\UserList\USERNAME 0 to hide; 1 to unhide

(Note: SpecialAccounts\UserList levels do not usually exist)

Warning: This disables the account in other ways. No way to log in to it temporarily from the login screen without changing the registry back frist. Ie the only way you can use it as a backup account in case your regular account gets corrupted, is to set LocalAccountTokenFilterPolicy to 1 (it’s default 0 or missing) and use sysinternals PsTools/psexec to log into it remotely. Command line only.

Reference: https://social.technet.microsoft.com/Forums/windows/en-US/16378967-8a39-4aef-85e4-d859a71648d3/hide-user-accounts-on-windows-7-logon?forum=w7itproui

X:\a_no_backup\dl\M_M\usb_drive_copy\tech\windows\batch_files\hide_user_frome_welcome_screen.bat.txt


Use Hidden account–Shift click run as

To get a prompt that includes a username and password field from within Windows 7 — even in a Standard (non-Administrator) account follow these steps.

  1. While holding down the Shift key, right-click the program you want to run.
  2. Select “Run as a different user.”
  3. Type the username and password of the hidden account.

Note: this does NOT work for disabled user accounts, like the built-in Administrator account.

This DOES work for hidden (but still enabled) user accounts.

BUT this did not work for me 4/9/2016 from a user account that has no password (the dest acct does have a password)

The following did work:

runas /user:USERNAME "C:\Windows\system32\notepad.exe"

Reference: http://www.sevenforums.com/general-discussion/32109-logging-hidden-administrator-account.html
Reference: http://www.sevenforums.com/tutorials/419-run-different-user.html


“Classic” logon screen where you have to type user AND password

Local Security Policy secpol.msc or gpedit.msc

Local Group Policy editor gpedit.msc

  • Local Computer Policy
    • Computer Configuration
      • Windows Settings
        • Security Settings
          • Local policies
            • Security Options
              • Interactive Logon: Do not display last username : Enabled means classic login; Disabled (or not defined? means classic windows 7 user buttons)

Local Security Policy secpol.msc

  • Security Settings
    • Local policies
      • Security Options
        • Interactive Logon: Do not display last username : Enabled means classic login; Disabled (or not defined? means classic windows 7 user buttons)

Or,

regedit HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\System\dontdisplaylastusername set to 1

Reference: http://www.sevenforums.com/tutorials/61650-log-user-name-password.html


change windows logon background image

This is not the desktop background wallpaper. It’s only seen during login/logout. It is a similar blue image with swooshes by default in Windows 7. But not the same. The login/out image does not have the MS logo in the middle, eg.

You might use this to instruct to hold SHIFT while logging on (see above).

I found the default login/out background 2 places. Only in winxsx folders–weird, I think:

C:\Windows\winsxs\amd64_setup-uxwizard-clientimages_31bf3856ad364e35_6.1.7600.16385_none_a4cc3ba14850df9e\background.bmp

C:\Windows\winsxs\x86_setup-uxwizard-clientimages_31bf3856ad364e35_6.1.7600.16385_none_48ada01d8ff36e68\background.bmp

Either

  1. regedit

    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Authentication\LogonUI\Background\OEMBackground 1

    (might not exist; just create it)

    or

  2. gpedit.msc -> Computer Configuration\Administrative Templates\System\Logon

    “Always use custom login background.”
    set to “Enabled”

    Put image here:
    C:\Windows\System32\oobe\info\backgrounds\backgroundDefault.jpg

    must be that exact filename. There are some variations on names using image size numbers I found online.

    oobe folder might not exist; just create it. oobe stands for “Out of Box Experience” ie first time you start up a new Windows PC.

    Reference: https://www.howtogeek.com/112110/how-to-set-a-custom-logon-screen-background-on-windows-7/

    Reference: https://www.sevenforums.com/tutorials/5382-log-screen-change.html

Updating Quickbooks



Every couple years, you need to update Intuit’s Quickbooks.

Quick Summary of how-to:

  • make backup using old version
  • install new version
  • move file local to new version (if normally on net share; they’re picking about net access)
  • Let new version convert (will also make a backup)
  • move file back o net location (if normally on net share)

Some key quotes from Intuit Quickbooks support:

When you open your company file in a newer version, QuickBooks asks if you want to update or convert the QuickBooks company file.
Company file compatibility between QuickBooks versions

So, generally Quickbooks handles the compnay file conversion for us.

Before updating or converting a company file, QuickBooks requires you to make a backup of the existing file in case you need to revert back to this file and or to the older version of QuickBooks. We recommend saving this file in a safe location with a name that is recognizable as the pre-conversion backup, for example: John Smith Car Repair - QB2010.QBB. For more information see Update (convert) your company file to a newer version of QuickBooks
Company file compatibility between QuickBooks versions

QB will make the backup for you, but, make one yourself before installing the new version. I concur the backup file should be named to indicate it was pre-NEW VESION.

If you update or convert a company file, enter transactions in the converted file, and then decide to revert back to the old version and old backup file, you will need to be manually re-enter those transactions. There is no way to export the newer transactions into the older file or to merge these files using QuickBooks. Additional solutions may be available at Marketplace.Intuit.com.
Company file compatibility between QuickBooks versions

That’s something to keep in mind.

Do not update over a network.

Be sure the company data file is stored on the same computer you are using to update it. You might need to copy the file from another computer, and then copy it back after you finish updating it.
Update (convert) your company file to a newer version of QuickBooks

With the normal operation of Quickbooks, the network is only a problem if two ppl access simultaneously. Cuz it is not syncing. Or just file syncing which can fail over a network. In this case my guess is they’re just concerned about network dropping out during the company file conversion.

References

Can i still make an image copy of my system drive if i have bad sectors?

YES

with Macrium Reflect, my favorite disk imaging program. (I pay for it, cuz the free ones are too risky / unsupported, and it’s too important to risk.)

First, you should run chkdsk, perhaps 2 or even 3 times. This can take an hour or more to run. This may mask bad sectors so Macrium Reflect can finish.

Note it would be helpful after restoring to a new drive to run chkdsk /b to re-evaluate those bad sectors, cuz on the new disk, there are none (or at least fewer, we hope, but certainly different ones).

If chkdsk doesnt fix ’em, there is an option in Advanced called “Ignore bad sectors when creating images”

Reflect_defaults


 

Reference: v5: Imaging disks with bad sectors in the Macrium Reflect KnowledgeBase

 

What causes Bad Sectors on Hard Disk Drives (HDD)?

What causes Bad Sectors on Hard Disk Drives (HDD)?

There are 2 categories of reasons.

1. You (nothing personal)

If you jar or jolt or jerk or jiggle or strike or shake or bang your pc while it is accessing the disk, you can damage that tiny piece, and cause a bad sector. And your pc is pretty much always accessing the disk, so…

What’s happening is that inside the hard disk drive is a…disk, an actual platter that is spinning fast, really fast. The platter contains all the data. As the platter spins the “head” of the disk (that which reads and writes the disk) floats over the platter on a laminar cushion of air flow with literally a few nanometers of space between them.  That’s about 1 millionth of a millimeter. So, yeah, small.

For an analogy, it’s like a 747 flying 1/32nd of an inch off the ground.

Sudden motions of the disk (or the computer containing the disk) can cause the head to contact the platter and scratch it. Usually this only happens for a fraction of a second and damages just a tiny portion of the disk. Just a sector or few.

2. Entropy

The theory of entropy states that everything in the universe tends towards disorder (or decay).

This is happening right now on your hard drive as you read this 😉

The specific sources of this decay are:

  • original manufacturing defects
  • heat
  • wear over time
  • tiny, tiny specs of dust (that get by the filter)
  • vibrations of the building containing the device
  • electrical disturbances (from the power company, lightening)
  • error in the logic hardware of the drive
  • “overclocking”

References:

 

 

What is a “Bad Sector”

A “Bad Sector” is a term for a broken piece of Hard Disk Drive (HDD)–a very small piece. There are millions of sectors on a hard drive. EG, standard sector size is 512 bytes (aka 512B). Consider a typical disk (in 2015) of 1TB in size, or 1,000,000,000,000 bytes (1 trillion bytes). Doing some math: there are 2 million sectors on a 1TB hard drive.

That means everything you store on there is broken up into pieces of 512. Have a 100MB video file? It is stored as 2000 pieces of 512B each.

Fortunately, when sectors go bad, two mechanisms exist to help you.

  1. The hard disk drive itself detects many bad sectors and remaps them so that data is stored elsewhere, in good sectors. You may never notice these.
  2. Windows Operating System detects bad sectors and marks them to avoid using them in the future. Windows Vista, 7, 8 (and presumably 10 and later) detect when a “chkdsk” is necessary and prompt you to run it at next boot. If not, you can run “chkdsk” yourself.

Note: when the OS detects hard disk errors, you should IMMEDIATELY MAKE A BACKUP. DO NOT PASS GO. DO NOT COLLECT $200.

Then, get a new hard drive.

Usually things will only get worse. In the upcoming months, even days, even hours.


Why do sectors go bad?


Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disk_sector

Canonical Names of Control Panel Items



I want to have a copy of this in my blog, close at hand

Quote of Canonical Names of Control Panel Items

Canonical Names of Control Panel Items

As of Windows Vista, Control Panel items included with Windows are given a canonical name that can be used in an API call or a command-line instruction to programmatically launch that item. As of Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2, canonical names can be used in a group policy to hide specific Control Panel items. This topic provides details for each Control Panel item: canonical name, GUID, module name, and the operating system versions that recognize the canonical name.

Note Canonical names for Control Panel items are not supported prior to Windows Vista.
on this page on original ms page
Control Panel Canonical Names Control Panel Canonical Names
Deprecated Control Panel Canonical Names Deprecated Control Panel Canonical Names
Using Canonical Names in Group Policy Using Canonical Names in Group Policy
Remarks Remarks

Control Panel Canonical Names

Points to remember when working with these values:

  • By definition, canonical names do not change based on the system language; they’re always in English, even if the system’s language is not.
  • Not all Control Panel items are present in all varieties of Windows.
  • Some Control Panel items only appear if the right hardware is detected on the system.
  • Third parties can also add Control Panel items. The canonical names listed here are only for Control Panel items that are included with Windows.

The following are the Control Panel items available in Windows 8.1:

On this page on original ms page
Action Center Action Center
Administrative Tools Administrative Tools
AutoPlay AutoPlay
Biometric Devices Biometric Devices
BitLocker Drive Encryption BitLocker Drive Encryption
Color Management Color Management
Credential Manager Credential Manager
Date and Time Date and Time
Default Programs Default Programs
Device Manager Device Manager
Devices and Printers Devices and Printers
Display Display
Ease of Access Center Ease of Access Center
Family Safety Family Safety
File History File History
Folder Options Folder Options
Fonts Fonts
HomeGroup HomeGroup
Indexing Options Indexing Options
Infrared Infrared
Internet Options Internet Options
iSCSI Initiator iSCSI Initiator
iSNS Server iSNS Server
Keyboard Keyboard
Language Language
Location Settings Location Settings
Mouse Mouse
MPIOConfiguration MPIOConfiguration
Network and Sharing Center Network and Sharing Center
Notification Area Icons Notification Area Icons
Pen and Touch Pen and Touch
Personalization Personalization
Phone and Modem Phone and Modem
Power Options Power Options
Programs and Features Programs and Features
Recovery Recovery
Region Region
RemoteApp and Desktop Connections RemoteApp and Desktop Connections
Sound Sound
Speech Recognition Speech Recognition
Storage Spaces Storage Spaces
Sync Center Sync Center
System System
Tablet PC Settings Tablet PC Settings
Taskbar and Navigation Taskbar and Navigation
Troubleshooting Troubleshooting
TSAppInstall TSAppInstall
User Accounts User Accounts
Windows Anytime Upgrade Windows Anytime Upgrade
Windows Defender Windows Defender
Windows Firewall Windows Firewall
Windows Mobility Center Windows Mobility Center
Windows To Go Windows To Go
Windows Update Windows Update
Work Folders Work Folders

Action Center

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.ActionCenter
  • GUID: {BB64F8A7-BEE7-4E1A-AB8D-7D8273F7FDB6}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\ActionCenterCPL.dll,-1
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    MaintenanceSettings Automatic Maintenance
    pageProblems Problem Reports
    pageReliabilityView Reliability Monitor
    pageResponseArchive Archived Messages
    pageSettings Problem Reporting Settings

     

Administrative Tools

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.AdministrativeTools
  • GUID: {D20EA4E1-3957-11d2-A40B-0C5020524153}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\shell32.dll,-22982

AutoPlay

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.AutoPlay
  • GUID: {9C60DE1E-E5FC-40f4-A487-460851A8D915}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\autoplay.dll,-1

Biometric Devices

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.BiometricDevices
  • GUID: {0142e4d0-fb7a-11dc-ba4a-000ffe7ab428}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\biocpl.dll,-1

BitLocker Drive Encryption

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.BitLockerDriveEncryption
  • GUID: {D9EF8727-CAC2-4e60-809E-86F80A666C91}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\fvecpl.dll,-1

Color Management

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.ColorManagement
  • GUID: {B2C761C6-29BC-4f19-9251-E6195265BAF1}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%systemroot%\system32\colorcpl.exe,-6

Credential Manager

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.CredentialManager
  • GUID: {1206F5F1-0569-412C-8FEC-3204630DFB70}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\Vault.dll,-1
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    ?SelectedVault=CredmanVault Windows Credentials

     

Date and Time

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.DateAndTime
  • GUID: {E2E7934B-DCE5-43C4-9576-7FE4F75E7480}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\timedate.cpl,-51
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    1 Additional Clocks

     

Default Programs

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.DefaultPrograms
  • GUID: {17cd9488-1228-4b2f-88ce-4298e93e0966}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\sud.dll,-1
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    pageDefaultProgram Set Default Programs
    pageFileAssoc Set Associations

     

Device Manager

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.DeviceManager
  • GUID: {74246bfc-4c96-11d0-abef-0020af6b0b7a}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\devmgr.dll,-4

Devices and Printers

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.DevicesAndPrinters
  • GUID: {A8A91A66-3A7D-4424-8D24-04E180695C7A}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%systemroot%\system32\DeviceCenter.dll,-1000

Display

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Display
  • GUID: {C555438B-3C23-4769-A71F-B6D3D9B6053A}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\Display.dll,-1
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    Settings Screen Resolution

     

Ease of Access Center

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.EaseOfAccessCenter
  • GUID: {D555645E-D4F8-4c29-A827-D93C859C4F2A}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\accessibilitycpl.dll,-10
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    pageEasierToClick Make the mouse easier to use
    pageEasierToSee Make the computer easier to see
    pageEasierWithSounds Use text or visual alternatives for sounds
    pageFilterKeysSettings Set up Filter Keys
    pageKeyboardEasierToUse Make the keyboard easier to use
    pageNoMouseOrKeyboard Use the computer without a mouse or keyboard
    pageNoVisual Use the computer without a display
    pageQuestionsCognitive Get recommendations to make your computer easier to use (cognitive)
    pageQuestionsEyesight Get recommendations to make your computer easier to use (eyesight)

     

Family Safety

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.ParentalControls
  • GUID: {96AE8D84-A250-4520-95A5-A47A7E3C548B}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\wpccpl.dll,-100
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    pageUserHub Choose a user and set up Family Safety

     

File History

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.FileHistory
  • GUID: {F6B6E965-E9B2-444B-9286-10C9152EDBC5}
  • Supported OS: Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\fhcpl.dll,-52
  • File History includes a newer version of the Backup and Restore item, but that older item’s canonical name does not remap to File History.

Folder Options

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.FolderOptions
  • GUID: {6DFD7C5C-2451-11d3-A299-00C04F8EF6AF}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\shell32.dll,-22985

Fonts

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Fonts
  • GUID: {93412589-74D4-4E4E-AD0E-E0CB621440FD}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\FontExt.dll,-8007

HomeGroup

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.HomeGroup
  • GUID: {67CA7650-96E6-4FDD-BB43-A8E774F73A57}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\hgcpl.dll,-1

Indexing Options

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.IndexingOptions
  • GUID: {87D66A43-7B11-4A28-9811-C86EE395ACF7}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\srchadmin.dll,-601

Infrared

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Infrared
  • GUID: {A0275511-0E86-4ECA-97C2-ECD8F1221D08}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\irprops.cpl,-1

Internet Options

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.InternetOptions
  • GUID: {A3DD4F92-658A-410F-84FD-6FBBBEF2FFFE}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @C:\Windows\System32\inetcpl.cpl,-4312
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    1 Security
    2 Privacy
    3 Content
    4 Connections
    5 Programs
    6 Advanced

     

iSCSI Initiator

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.iSCSIInitiator
  • GUID: {A304259D-52B8-4526-8B1A-A1D6CECC8243}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\iscsicpl.dll,-5001

iSNS Server

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.iSNSServer
  • GUID: {0D2A3442-5181-4E3A-9BD4-83BD10AF3D76}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\isnssrv.dll,-5005
  • This Control Panel item will be seen only in server versions of Windows.

Keyboard

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Keyboard
  • GUID: {725BE8F7-668E-4C7B-8F90-46BDB0936430}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\main.cpl,-102

Language

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Language
  • GUID: {BF782CC9-5A52-4A17-806C-2A894FFEEAC5}
  • Supported OS: Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\UserLanguagesCpl.dll,-1

Location Settings

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.LocationSettings
  • GUID: {E9950154-C418-419e-A90A-20C5287AE24B}
  • Supported OS: Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\SensorsCpl.dll,-1

Mouse

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Mouse
  • GUID: {6C8EEC18-8D75-41B2-A177-8831D59D2D50}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\main.cpl,-100
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    1 Pointers
    2 Pointer Options
    3 Wheel
    4 Hardware

     

MPIOConfiguration

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.MPIOConfiguration
  • GUID: {AB3BE6AA-7561-4838-AB77-ACF8427DF426}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\mpiocpl.dll,-1000
  • This Control Panel item will be seen only in server versions of Windows.

Network and Sharing Center

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.NetworkAndSharingCenter
  • GUID: {8E908FC9-BECC-40f6-915B-F4CA0E70D03D}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\netcenter.dll,-1
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    Advanced Advanced sharing settings
    ShareMedia Media streaming options

     

Notification Area Icons

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.NotificationAreaIcons
  • GUID: {05d7b0f4-2121-4eff-bf6b-ed3f69b894d9}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\taskbarcpl.dll,-1

Pen and Touch

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.PenAndTouch
  • GUID: {F82DF8F7-8B9F-442E-A48C-818EA735FF9B}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\tabletpc.cpl,-10103
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    1 Flicks
    2 Handwriting

     

Personalization

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Personalization
  • GUID: {ED834ED6-4B5A-4bfe-8F11-A626DCB6A921}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\themecpl.dll,-1
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    pageColorization Color and Appearance
    pageWallpaper Desktop Background

     

Phone and Modem

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.PhoneAndModem
  • GUID: {40419485-C444-4567-851A-2DD7BFA1684D}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\telephon.cpl,-1
  • The window that this value launches is titled “Location Information” in versions of Windows prior to Windows 8. The item’s UI is considerably changed as of Windows 8.

Power Options

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.PowerOptions
  • GUID: {025A5937-A6BE-4686-A844-36FE4BEC8B6D}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\powercpl.dll,-1
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    pageGlobalSettings System Settings
    pagePlanSettings Edit Plan Settings

     

Programs and Features

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.ProgramsAndFeatures
  • GUID: {7b81be6a-ce2b-4676-a29e-eb907a5126c5}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%systemroot%\system32\appwiz.cpl,-159
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    ::{D450A8A1-9568-45C7-9C0E-B4F9FB4537BD} Installed Updates

     

Recovery

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Recovery
  • GUID: {9FE63AFD-59CF-4419-9775-ABCC3849F861}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\recovery.dll,-101

Region

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.RegionAndLanguage
  • GUID: {62D8ED13-C9D0-4CE8-A914-47DD628FB1B0}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\intl.cpl,-1
  • The Region and Language item found in Windows 7 was split as of Windows 8. Microsoft.RegionAndLanguage now launches the Region item. To launch the Language item, use Microsoft.Language.
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    1 Location
    2 Administrative

     

RemoteApp and Desktop Connections

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.RemoteAppAndDesktopConnections
  • GUID: {241D7C96-F8BF-4F85-B01F-E2B043341A4B}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\tsworkspace.dll,-15300

Sound

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Sound
  • GUID: {F2DDFC82-8F12-4CDD-B7DC-D4FE1425AA4D}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\mmsys.cpl,-300

Speech Recognition

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.SpeechRecognition
  • GUID: {58E3C745-D971-4081-9034-86E34B30836A}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\Speech\SpeechUX\speechuxcpl.dll,-1

Storage Spaces

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.StorageSpaces
  • GUID: {F942C606-0914-47AB-BE56-1321B8035096}
  • Supported OS: Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @C:\Windows\System32\SpaceControl.dll,-1

Sync Center

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.SyncCenter
  • GUID: {9C73F5E5-7AE7-4E32-A8E8-8D23B85255BF}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\SyncCenter.dll,-3000

System

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.System
  • GUID: {BB06C0E4-D293-4f75-8A90-CB05B6477EEE}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\systemcpl.dll,-1

Tablet PC Settings

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.TabletPCSettings
  • GUID: {80F3F1D5-FECA-45F3-BC32-752C152E456E}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\tabletpc.cpl,-10100

Taskbar and Navigation

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Taskbar
  • GUID: {0DF44EAA-FF21-4412-828E-260A8728E7F1}
  • Supported OS: Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\shell32.dll,-32517

Troubleshooting

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Troubleshooting
  • GUID: {C58C4893-3BE0-4B45-ABB5-A63E4B8C8651}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\DiagCpl.dll,-1
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    HistoryPage History

     

TSAppInstall

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.TSAppInstall
  • GUID: {BAA884F4-3432-48b8-AA72-9BF20EEF31D5}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%systemroot%\system32\tsappinstall.exe,-2001

User Accounts

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.UserAccounts
  • GUID: {60632754-c523-4b62-b45c-4172da012619}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\usercpl.dll,-1

Windows Anytime Upgrade

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.WindowsAnytimeUpgrade
  • GUID: {BE122A0E-4503-11DA-8BDE-F66BAD1E3F3A}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @$(resourceString._SYS_MOD_PATH),-1

Windows Defender

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.WindowsDefender
  • GUID: {D8559EB9-20C0-410E-BEDA-7ED416AECC2A}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%ProgramFiles%\Windows Defender\MsMpRes.dll,-104

Windows Firewall

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.WindowsFirewall
  • GUID: {4026492F-2F69-46B8-B9BF-5654FC07E423}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @C:\Windows\system32\FirewallControlPanel.dll,-12122
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    pageConfigureApps Allowed apps

     

Windows Mobility Center

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.MobilityCenter
  • GUID: {5ea4f148-308c-46d7-98a9-49041b1dd468}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\mblctr.exe,-1002

Windows To Go

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.PortableWorkspaceCreator
  • GUID: {8E0C279D-0BD1-43C3-9EBD-31C3DC5B8A77}
  • Supported OS: Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\pwcreator.exe,-151

Windows Update

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.WindowsUpdate
  • GUID: {36eef7db-88ad-4e81-ad49-0e313f0c35f8}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\wucltux.dll,-1
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    pageSettings Change settings
    pageUpdateHistory View update history

     

Work Folders

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.WorkFolders
  • GUID: {ECDB0924-4208-451E-8EE0-373C0956DE16}
  • Supported OS: Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @C:\Windows\System32\WorkfoldersControl.dll,-1

Deprecated Control Panel Canonical Names

The following are canonical names that are no longer in use as of Windows 8.1. Some have been removed altogether. Others have been remapped in these situations:

  • A Control Panel item is renamed. The renamed item is given a new canonical name but keeps the same GUID. In this case, the old canonical name launches the renamed Control Panel item. Be aware that the item that’s launched might not use the same UI as that item’s older version.
  • The functionality of one or more Control Panel items is moved or consolidated into a new item. In this case, the old canonical name maps to the most appropriate new Control Panel item.
Note Remappings exist for backward compatibility. You should not use deprecated values in new code.
Deprecated canonical name Control Panel Item GUID Notes
Microsoft.AddHardware Add Hardware {7A979262-40CE-46ff-AEEE-7884AC3B6136} Maps to Microsoft.DevicesAndPrinters as of Windows 7.
Microsoft.AudioDevicesAndSoundThemes Sound {F2DDFC82-8F12-4CDD-B7DC-D4FE1425AA4D} Maps to Microsoft.Sound as of Windows 7.
Microsoft.BackupAndRestoreCenter/Microsoft.BackupAndRestore Backup and Restore Center {B98A2BEA-7D42-4558-8BD1-832F41BAC6FD} Microsoft.BackupAndRestoreCenter maps to Microsoft.BackupAndRestore in Windows 7. Both are removed as of Windows 8; use Microsoft.FileHistory instead.
Microsoft.CardSpace Windows CardSpace {78CB147A-98EA-4AA6-B0DF-C8681F69341C} Removed as of Windows 8.
Microsoft.DesktopGadgets Desktop Gadgets {37efd44d-ef8d-41b1-940d-96973a50e9e0} Removed as of Windows 8.
Microsoft.GetProgramsOnline Windows Marketplace {3e7efb4c-faf1-453d-89eb-56026875ef90} Removed as of Windows 7.
Microsoft.InfraredOptions Infrared {A0275511-0E86-4ECA-97C2-ECD8F1221D08} Maps to Microsoft.Infrared as of Windows 7.
Microsoft.LocationAndOtherSensors Location and Other Sensors {E9950154-C418-419e-A90A-20C5287AE24B} Maps to Microsoft.LocationSettings as of Windows 8.
Microsoft.PenAndInputDevices Pen and Input Devices {F82DF8F7-8B9F-442E-A48C-818EA735FF9B} Maps to Microsoft.PenAndTouch as of Windows 7.
Microsoft.PeopleNearMe People Near Me {5224F545-A443-4859-BA23-7B5A95BDC8EF} Removed as of Windows 8.
Microsoft.PerformanceInformationAndTools Performance Information and Tools {78F3955E-3B90-4184-BD14-5397C15F1EFC} Removed as of Windows 8.1.
Microsoft.PhoneAndModemOptions Phone and Modem {40419485-C444-4567-851A-2DD7BFA1684D} Maps to Microsoft.PhoneAndModem as of Windows 7.
Microsoft.Printers Printers {2227A280-3AEA-1069-A2DE-08002B30309D} Maps to Microsoft.DevicesAndPrinters as of Windows 7.
Microsoft.ProblemReportsAndSolutions Problem Reports and Solutions {FCFEECAE-EE1B-4849-AE50-685DCF7717EC} Maps to Microsoft.ActionCenter as of Windows 7.
Microsoft.RegionalAndLanguageOptions Regional and Language Options {62D8ED13-C9D0-4CE8-A914-47DD628FB1B0} Maps to Microsoft.RegionAndLanguage as of Windows 7. Note that as of Windows 8, Region and Language were each given their own Control Panel item. Both Microsoft.RegionalAndLanguageOptions and Microsoft.RegionAndLanguage currently open the Region item. You must use Microsoft.Language to access the Language item.
Microsoft.SecurityCenter Windows Security Center {087DA31B-0DD3-4537-8E23-64A18591F88B} Maps to Microsoft.ActionCenter as of Windows 7.
Microsoft.SpeechRecognitionOptions Speech Recognition Options {58E3C745-D971-4081-9034-86E34B30836A} Maps to Microsoft.SpeechRecognition as of Windows 7.
Microsoft.TaskbarAndStartMenu Taskbar and Start Menu {0DF44EAA-FF21-4412-828E-260A8728E7F1} Maps to Microsoft.Taskbar as of Windows 8.
Microsoft.WelcomeCenter Welcome Center {CB1B7F8C-C50A-4176-B604-9E24DEE8D4D1} Maps to Microsoft.GettingStarted in Windows 7. Launches the Control Panel home page as of Windows 8.
Microsoft.WindowsSidebarProperties Windows Sidebar Properties {37efd44d-ef8d-41b1-940d-96973a50e9e0} Maps to Microsoft.DesktopGadgets in Windows 7. Removed as of Windows 8.
Microsoft.WindowsSideShow Windows SideShow {E95A4861-D57A-4be1-AD0F-35267E261739} Feature deprecated in Windows 8, removed as of Windows 8.1.

 

Using Canonical Names in Local Group Policy

As of Windows 7, you can use canonical names to restrict access to individual Control Panel items through group policy. This same procedure can be used in Windows Vista, but you have to use the module name instead of the canonical name.

Hiding individual Control Panel items

Use this method if you want to show more Control Panel items than you want to hide.

  1. Run the Gpedit.msc file to launch the Local Group Policy Editor. You can also type “group policy” at the Windows 8.1 Start screen and select Edit group policy from the search results.
  2. Select User Configuration > Administrative Templates > Control Panel.
  3. Select Hide specified Control Panel items.
  4. In the Hide Specified Control Panel Items window that opens, click Enabled.
  5. Click the Show button in the Options panel to show the list of disallowed Control Panel items.
  6. In the Show Contents window that opens, type a canonical name into the Value column. Repeat as necessary.
  7. Click OK.

Showing individual Control Panel items

Use this method if you want to hide more Control Panel items than you want to show.

  1. Run the Gpedit.msc file to launch the Local Group Policy Editor. You can also type “group policy” at the Windows 8.1 Start screen and select Edit group policy from the search results.
  2. Select User Configuration > Administrative Templates > Control Panel.
  3. Select Show only specified Control Panel items.
  4. In the Show Only Specified Control Panel Items window that opens, click Enabled. This hides everything in the Control Panel.
  5. Click the Show button in the Options panel to show the list of allowed Control Panel items.
  6. In the Show Contents window that opens, type a canonical name into the Value column. Repeat as necessary.
  7. Click OK.

If you want to remove all of the entries that you’ve added to a Show or Hide Control Panel items list, return to the screen in step 4 and select Not Configured to clear the list. If you want to retain your entries but suspend the restrictions, select Disabled.

Remarks

You might see items in your Control Panel that are not listed here. Those items are not part of Windows, but instead are added during the installation of various software and hardware, such as Microsoft Office or a video card. Non-Windows Control Panel items may or may not have a canonical name. To find the canonical name of a Control Panel item not listed here, look in the registry under these paths:

HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT
   CLSID
      {CLSID of the Control Panel item}
         System.ApplicationName
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
   SOFTWARE
      Classes
         CLSID
            {CLSID of the Control Panel item}
               System.ApplicationName

For more information that can help you discover the necessary CLSIDs, see How to Register Executable Control Panel Items and How to Register DLL Control Panel Items.

Windows XP System File Reference



Who knows when ms will remove this from their servers.

Quote of System Files Reference

System Files Reference

114 out of 145 rated this helpful Rate this topic
Published: November 03, 2005

When you install the Microsoft Windows XP Professional operating system, the Setup program creates folders on your system drive into which it places files that the system requires. Knowing the names and locations of essential system files can help you understand and troubleshoot your Windows XP Professional installation.

For information on how to obtain the Windows XP Professional Resource Kit in its entirety, please see http://www.microsoft.com/mspress/books/6795.asp.

Bb457124.3squares(en-us,TechNet.10).gif

On This Page

on original ms page:
Related Information Related Information
System Files System Files
Startup Files Startup Files
Folders on the Local Disk Folders on the Local Disk
Windows Folder Windows Folder
System32 Folder System32 Folder
Extracting Files from the Operating System CD Extracting Files from the Operating System CD
Using the Copy Command in Recovery Console Using the Copy Command in Recovery Console
Using the Expand Command in Recovery Console Using the Expand Command in Recovery Console
Additional Resources Additional Resources

Related Information

  • For information about troubleshooting Startup and running Recovery Console, see Chapter 29, “Troubleshooting the Startup Process.”
  • For information about general troubleshooting concepts and strategies, see Chapter 27, “Understanding Troubleshooting.”

System Files

The following files are core components of the Windows XP Professional operating system. If you install Windows XP Professional as an upgrade from Microsoft Windows 2000 or earlier, the files listed in Table A-1 are located in the Windows\System32 folder or in Winnt\System32.

Table A-1 Essential System Files

File Name Description
Ntoskrnl.exe Executive and kernel.
Ntkrnlpa.exe Executive and kernel with support for Physical Address Extension (PAE), which allows addressing of more than 4 gigabytes (GB) of physical memory.
Hal.dll Hardware abstraction layer.
Win32k.sys Kernel-mode part of the Win32 subsystem.
Ntdll.dll Internal support functions and system service dispatch stubs to executive functions.
Kernel32.dll

Advapi32.dll

User32.dll

Gdi32.dll

Core Win32 subsystem DLLs.

Startup Files

The following files are essential to the startup process. All files listed in Table A-2 are located in the boot or root directory (for example, C:\) of your Windows XP Professional installation.

Table A-2 Essential Startup Files

File Name Description
Ntldr Reads the Boot.ini file, presents the boot menu, and loads Ntoskrnl.exe, Bootvid.dll, Hal.dll, and boot-start device drivers.
Boot.ini Contains options for starting the version of Windows that Setup installs and any preexisting Windows installations.
Ntdetect.com After the boot selection is made, Ntldr loads and executes this 16-bit real-mode program to query the computer for basic device and configuration information. This information includes the following:

  • The time and date information stored in the system’s CMOS (nonvolatile memory).
  • The types of buses (for example, ISA, PCI, EISA, Micro Channel Architecture [MCA]) on the system and identifiers for devices attached to the buses.
  • The number, size, and type of disk drives on the system.
  • The types of mouse input devices connected to the system.
  • The number and type of parallel ports configured on the system.
Pagefile.sys Contains memory data that Windows is unable to fit into physical RAM. During Startup, the virtual memory manager moves data in and out of the paging file to optimize the amount of physical memory available to the operating system and applications.
Ntbootdd.sys If either the boot or system drives are SCSI-based, Ntldr loads this file and uses it instead of the boot-code functions for disk access.

Folders on the Local Disk

Setup creates the following folders (shown in Table A-3) on your local disk by default when installing Windows XP Professional.

Note When Windows XP Professional is installed as an upgrade from Windows 2000 or earlier, Setup installs the operating system into the existing Winnt folder. A Windows folder is not created.

Table A-3 Default Local Disk Folders

Folder Name Contents
Documents and Settings Account information for each user who is granted access on the computer. Each user account is represented by a subfolder assigned the user name and called the user profile. Folders under each user account folder include My Documents, Desktop, and Start Menu.
Program Files Installed applications, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer or Microsoft Office.
WINDOWS or WINNT Entire operating system.

Windows Folder

The Windows folder and its subfolders contain the operating system files for your Windows XP Professional installation (as shown in Table A-4).

Table A-4 Windows Folder and Subfolders

Folder Name Contents
WINDOWS or WINNT Miscellaneous operating system and application files (for example, Control.ini, Desktop.ini, Notepad.exe, and System.ini files)
Addins ActiveX controls (.ocx) files
AppPatch Application compatibility files
Config Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) instrument definition files
Connection Wizard Internet connection files that are used when a computer starts Windows for the first time
CSC Offline files that are used during client-side caching
Cursors Cursor and icon files
Debug Log files
Downloaded Program Files Downloaded program files
Driver Cache Uninstalled driver files
ehome Used by Windows Media Center Edition
Fonts All font files
Help Help files
Ime Language files
ime (x86) Language files for x86-based systems
inf Device driver INF files
Installer Cached Windows Installer (.MSI) files
Java Java files
Media Sound and music files (for example: *.wav and *.midi)
MS Installation folder for Microsoft Systems Management Server (SMS) client
Msagent Microsoft Agent files (Microsoft Agent is a set of programmable software services that support the presentation of interactive animated characters within the Microsoft Windows interface.)
Msapps Files that support backward compatibility in applications
Mui Multi-user interface files
Offline Web Pages Downloaded Web pages for offline reading
PCHEALTH Help and Support Center files
PeerNet MSSL 2.0 files
PIF Program information files (PIFs) for MS-DOS-based programs
Prefetch Data files related to enhancing the speed at which applications start
Provisioning Schemas for creating wireless profiles
Registration COM+ files. (COM+ files are enhancements to the Microsoft Component Object Model [COM].)
Repair Registry backup files (These files are updated if you use NTBackup and choose to back up system state files.)
Resources User interface files
SchCache Schema cache folder
Security Log files, templates for snap-ins, and security database files
Setupupd Dynamic Update storage location
SoftwareDistribution Used by Automatic Updates
Srchasst Search assistant files
System Backward-compatibility files related to the System folder (for example, applications that look for a System folder)
system32 Core operating system files (For more information, see “System32 Folder” later in this appendix.)
Tasks Scheduled Task files
Temp Temporary files
twain_32 Imaging files (for scanners)
Web Printer and wallpaper files
WinSxS Side by Side (shared components)

System32 Folder

The System32 folder and its subfolders contain the core operating system files for your Windows XP Professional installation. Table A-5 describes the System32 files.

Table A-5 System32 Folder and Subfolders

Folder Name Contents
system32 Essential system files (for example, Hal.dll and Ntoskrnl.exe files).
1025, 1028, 1031, 1033, 1037, 1041, 1053, 2052, 3076 Localization (language) files for a specific language, corresponding to the number assigned to this folder. This folder remains empty unless Windows XP Professional is localized for this particular language.
CatRoot Catalog files and signature files.
CatRoot2 Catalog files and signature files.
Com Component Object Model (COM) objects.
Config Registry files and event logs.
Dhcp DHCP database files.
DirectX DirectX files.
Dllcache Windows File Protection backup files.
Drivers Installed drivers.
Export Encryption Pack installation files.
Group Policy Group Policy administrative templates and script files.
Ias Internet Authentication Service files.
Icsxml Universal Plug and Play files.
Ime Language files.
Inetsrv Internet Information Services files.
Macromed Macromedia files.
Microsoft Cryptography files.
MsDtc Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator files.
Mui Multi-user interface files.
Npp Network Monitor and trace files.
NtmsData Removable Storage Manager (RSM) database.
Oobe Windows Welcome files.
Ras Remote access server encryption files.
RemoteStorage Remote Storage Service (RSS) database.
Restore Data files or System Restore–related files.
Rpcproxy RPC Proxy files (RPCProxy.dll).
Setup Optional component manager files.
ShellExt Shell extension components.
Smsmsgs SMS Site Component Manager files.
SoftwareDistribution Used by Automatic Updates (Windows XP Service Pack 2).
Spool Print spooling files.
Usmt User State Migration tool.
Wbem Web-based Enterprise Management data files. Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) is the Microsoft implementation of WBEM.
Wins WINS database files.

Extracting Files from the Operating System CD

It is usually recommended that you use Add or Remove Programs in Control Panel to install and uninstall components, applications, and support software from the Windows XP Professional operating system CD. If system files are missing or damaged, you can run Windows XP Professional Setup from the operating system CD and choose the option to repair your existing installation. In some cases, however, you might need to extract a system or startup file directly from the operating system CD.

Warning If you install incorrect versions of system or startup files or if you install files to incorrect locations, your system might not operate as expected or might not start. Use the method described in this section only if your product support representative indicates that it is necessary to manually retrieve a compressed file from your operating system CD.

The /i386 folder on your Windows XP Professional operating system CD contains system and startup files in compressed form. If you need to replace a file in your Windows XP Professional installation, you can use the copy or expand command in Recovery Console to extract the needed file from the operating system CD. Use the copy command unless you are extracting a file from a .cab file, such as Driver.cab. When extracting a file from a .cab file, use the expand command.

When you use Recovery Console to extract a compressed file from the operating system CD, you must use exact file names for the compressed and uncompressed files. Table A-6 illustrates compressed and uncompressed file names.

Table A-6 Compressed and Uncompressed File Names

Compressed File Name Uncompressed File Name
Ntoskrnl.ex_ Ntoskrnl.exe
Hal.dl_ Hal.dll

Using the Copy Command in Recovery Console

If a file is not within a .cab file, you can use the copy command in Recovery Console to extract the file from the operating system CD and place it on your local disk in a Windows XP Professional installation. When you use the copy command to extract a file to a destination on your local disk, the file is automatically uncompressed. For more information about running Recovery Console, including how to add it to your startup options, see Chapter 29, “Troubleshooting the Startup Process.”

Use the copy command with the following syntax:

copy source [destination]

Table A-7 describes the parameters that you can use with the copy command.

Table A-7 Parameters for the Copy Command

Parameter Description
Source Specifies the file to be copied
Destination Specifies the directory and/or file name for the new file

Source can be removable media, any directory within the System32 directory of the current Windows installation, the root of any drive, the local installation sources, or the Cmdcons folder. (The C:\Cmdcons folder is the Recovery Console installation folder.)

Destination can be any directory within the System32 directories of the current Windows installation, the root of any drive, the local installation sources, or the Cmdcons folder. If you do not specify a destination, the command defaults to the current directory. The copy command prompts you if the destination file already exists. The destination cannot be removable media.

The copy command does not support replaceable parameters (wildcards).

Using the Expand Command in Recovery Console

To extract a file from a .cab file on the operating system CD and place it on your local disk in a Windows XP Professional installation, start Recovery Console and use the expand command. When you use the expand command to extract a file to a destination on your local disk, the file is automatically uncompressed. For more information about running Recovery Console, including how to add it to your startup options, see Chapter 29, “Troubleshooting the Startup Process.”

Use the expand command with the following syntax:

expand source [/f:filespec][destination][/y][/d]

Tables A-8 describes the parameters that you can use with the expand command.

Tables A-8 Parameters for the Expand Command

Parameter Description
source Specifies the file that you want to expand. Cannot include wildcards.
destination Specifies the directory for the new file; the default is the current directory.
/y Suppresses the overwrite prompt when you expand or extract files.
/f:filespec If the source contains more than one file, this parameter is required to identify the specific file or files that you want to expand. Can include wildcards.
/d Lists the files contained in the cabinet file without expanding it or extracting from it.
  • The destination can be any folder within the System32 folder of the current Windows installation, the root of any drive, the local installation sources, or the Cmdcons folder.
  • The destination cannot be removable media.
  • The destination file cannot be read-only. Use the Attrib command to remove the read-only attribute.
  • If the destination file already exists, the expand command prompts you for confirmation to overwrite the file unless you include the /y parameter.

Additional Resources

The following resources contain additional information related to this appendix.

Related Information

  • Chapter 27, “Understanding Troubleshooting.”
  • Appendix C, “Tools for Troubleshooting.”
  • Chapter 28, “Troubleshooting Disks and File Systems.”
  • Chapter 29, “Troubleshooting the Startup Process.”
  • Windows XP Professional Help and Support Center, for more information about running and troubleshooting Windows XP Professional. Search using the keywords troubleshooting and recovery console.