What causes Bad Sectors on Hard Disk Drives (HDD)?

What causes Bad Sectors on Hard Disk Drives (HDD)?

There are 2 categories of reasons.

1. You (nothing personal)

If you jar or jolt or jerk or jiggle or strike or shake or bang your pc while it is accessing the disk, you can damage that tiny piece, and cause a bad sector. And your pc is pretty much always accessing the disk, so…

What’s happening is that inside the hard disk drive is a…disk, an actual platter that is spinning fast, really fast. The platter contains all the data. As the platter spins the “head” of the disk (that which reads and writes the disk) floats over the platter on a laminar cushion of air flow with literally a few nanometers of space between them.  That’s about 1 millionth of a millimeter. So, yeah, small.

For an analogy, it’s like a 747 flying 1/32nd of an inch off the ground.

Sudden motions of the disk (or the computer containing the disk) can cause the head to contact the platter and scratch it. Usually this only happens for a fraction of a second and damages just a tiny portion of the disk. Just a sector or few.

2. Entropy

The theory of entropy states that everything in the universe tends towards disorder (or decay).

This is happening right now on your hard drive as you read this 😉

The specific sources of this decay are:

  • original manufacturing defects
  • heat
  • wear over time
  • tiny, tiny specs of dust (that get by the filter)
  • vibrations of the building containing the device
  • electrical disturbances (from the power company, lightening)
  • error in the logic hardware of the drive
  • “overclocking”

References:

 

 

What is a “Bad Sector”

A “Bad Sector” is a term for a broken piece of Hard Disk Drive (HDD)–a very small piece. There are millions of sectors on a hard drive. EG, standard sector size is 512 bytes (aka 512B). Consider a typical disk (in 2015) of 1TB in size, or 1,000,000,000,000 bytes (1 trillion bytes). Doing some math: there are 2 million sectors on a 1TB hard drive.

That means everything you store on there is broken up into pieces of 512. Have a 100MB video file? It is stored as 2000 pieces of 512B each.

Fortunately, when sectors go bad, two mechanisms exist to help you.

  1. The hard disk drive itself detects many bad sectors and remaps them so that data is stored elsewhere, in good sectors. You may never notice these.
  2. Windows Operating System detects bad sectors and marks them to avoid using them in the future. Windows Vista, 7, 8 (and presumably 10 and later) detect when a “chkdsk” is necessary and prompt you to run it at next boot. If not, you can run “chkdsk” yourself.

Note: when the OS detects hard disk errors, you should IMMEDIATELY MAKE A BACKUP. DO NOT PASS GO. DO NOT COLLECT $200.

Then, get a new hard drive.

Usually things will only get worse. In the upcoming months, even days, even hours.


Why do sectors go bad?


Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disk_sector

Canonical Names of Control Panel Items



I want to have a copy of this in my blog, close at hand

Quote of Canonical Names of Control Panel Items

Canonical Names of Control Panel Items

As of Windows Vista, Control Panel items included with Windows are given a canonical name that can be used in an API call or a command-line instruction to programmatically launch that item. As of Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2, canonical names can be used in a group policy to hide specific Control Panel items. This topic provides details for each Control Panel item: canonical name, GUID, module name, and the operating system versions that recognize the canonical name.

Note Canonical names for Control Panel items are not supported prior to Windows Vista.
on this page on original ms page
Control Panel Canonical Names Control Panel Canonical Names
Deprecated Control Panel Canonical Names Deprecated Control Panel Canonical Names
Using Canonical Names in Group Policy Using Canonical Names in Group Policy
Remarks Remarks

Control Panel Canonical Names

Points to remember when working with these values:

  • By definition, canonical names do not change based on the system language; they’re always in English, even if the system’s language is not.
  • Not all Control Panel items are present in all varieties of Windows.
  • Some Control Panel items only appear if the right hardware is detected on the system.
  • Third parties can also add Control Panel items. The canonical names listed here are only for Control Panel items that are included with Windows.

The following are the Control Panel items available in Windows 8.1:

On this page on original ms page
Action Center Action Center
Administrative Tools Administrative Tools
AutoPlay AutoPlay
Biometric Devices Biometric Devices
BitLocker Drive Encryption BitLocker Drive Encryption
Color Management Color Management
Credential Manager Credential Manager
Date and Time Date and Time
Default Programs Default Programs
Device Manager Device Manager
Devices and Printers Devices and Printers
Display Display
Ease of Access Center Ease of Access Center
Family Safety Family Safety
File History File History
Folder Options Folder Options
Fonts Fonts
HomeGroup HomeGroup
Indexing Options Indexing Options
Infrared Infrared
Internet Options Internet Options
iSCSI Initiator iSCSI Initiator
iSNS Server iSNS Server
Keyboard Keyboard
Language Language
Location Settings Location Settings
Mouse Mouse
MPIOConfiguration MPIOConfiguration
Network and Sharing Center Network and Sharing Center
Notification Area Icons Notification Area Icons
Pen and Touch Pen and Touch
Personalization Personalization
Phone and Modem Phone and Modem
Power Options Power Options
Programs and Features Programs and Features
Recovery Recovery
Region Region
RemoteApp and Desktop Connections RemoteApp and Desktop Connections
Sound Sound
Speech Recognition Speech Recognition
Storage Spaces Storage Spaces
Sync Center Sync Center
System System
Tablet PC Settings Tablet PC Settings
Taskbar and Navigation Taskbar and Navigation
Troubleshooting Troubleshooting
TSAppInstall TSAppInstall
User Accounts User Accounts
Windows Anytime Upgrade Windows Anytime Upgrade
Windows Defender Windows Defender
Windows Firewall Windows Firewall
Windows Mobility Center Windows Mobility Center
Windows To Go Windows To Go
Windows Update Windows Update
Work Folders Work Folders

Action Center

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.ActionCenter
  • GUID: {BB64F8A7-BEE7-4E1A-AB8D-7D8273F7FDB6}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\ActionCenterCPL.dll,-1
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    MaintenanceSettings Automatic Maintenance
    pageProblems Problem Reports
    pageReliabilityView Reliability Monitor
    pageResponseArchive Archived Messages
    pageSettings Problem Reporting Settings

     

Administrative Tools

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.AdministrativeTools
  • GUID: {D20EA4E1-3957-11d2-A40B-0C5020524153}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\shell32.dll,-22982

AutoPlay

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.AutoPlay
  • GUID: {9C60DE1E-E5FC-40f4-A487-460851A8D915}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\autoplay.dll,-1

Biometric Devices

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.BiometricDevices
  • GUID: {0142e4d0-fb7a-11dc-ba4a-000ffe7ab428}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\biocpl.dll,-1

BitLocker Drive Encryption

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.BitLockerDriveEncryption
  • GUID: {D9EF8727-CAC2-4e60-809E-86F80A666C91}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\fvecpl.dll,-1

Color Management

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.ColorManagement
  • GUID: {B2C761C6-29BC-4f19-9251-E6195265BAF1}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%systemroot%\system32\colorcpl.exe,-6

Credential Manager

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.CredentialManager
  • GUID: {1206F5F1-0569-412C-8FEC-3204630DFB70}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\Vault.dll,-1
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    ?SelectedVault=CredmanVault Windows Credentials

     

Date and Time

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.DateAndTime
  • GUID: {E2E7934B-DCE5-43C4-9576-7FE4F75E7480}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\timedate.cpl,-51
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    1 Additional Clocks

     

Default Programs

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.DefaultPrograms
  • GUID: {17cd9488-1228-4b2f-88ce-4298e93e0966}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\sud.dll,-1
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    pageDefaultProgram Set Default Programs
    pageFileAssoc Set Associations

     

Device Manager

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.DeviceManager
  • GUID: {74246bfc-4c96-11d0-abef-0020af6b0b7a}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\devmgr.dll,-4

Devices and Printers

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.DevicesAndPrinters
  • GUID: {A8A91A66-3A7D-4424-8D24-04E180695C7A}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%systemroot%\system32\DeviceCenter.dll,-1000

Display

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Display
  • GUID: {C555438B-3C23-4769-A71F-B6D3D9B6053A}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\Display.dll,-1
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    Settings Screen Resolution

     

Ease of Access Center

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.EaseOfAccessCenter
  • GUID: {D555645E-D4F8-4c29-A827-D93C859C4F2A}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\accessibilitycpl.dll,-10
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    pageEasierToClick Make the mouse easier to use
    pageEasierToSee Make the computer easier to see
    pageEasierWithSounds Use text or visual alternatives for sounds
    pageFilterKeysSettings Set up Filter Keys
    pageKeyboardEasierToUse Make the keyboard easier to use
    pageNoMouseOrKeyboard Use the computer without a mouse or keyboard
    pageNoVisual Use the computer without a display
    pageQuestionsCognitive Get recommendations to make your computer easier to use (cognitive)
    pageQuestionsEyesight Get recommendations to make your computer easier to use (eyesight)

     

Family Safety

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.ParentalControls
  • GUID: {96AE8D84-A250-4520-95A5-A47A7E3C548B}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\wpccpl.dll,-100
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    pageUserHub Choose a user and set up Family Safety

     

File History

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.FileHistory
  • GUID: {F6B6E965-E9B2-444B-9286-10C9152EDBC5}
  • Supported OS: Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\fhcpl.dll,-52
  • File History includes a newer version of the Backup and Restore item, but that older item’s canonical name does not remap to File History.

Folder Options

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.FolderOptions
  • GUID: {6DFD7C5C-2451-11d3-A299-00C04F8EF6AF}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\shell32.dll,-22985

Fonts

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Fonts
  • GUID: {93412589-74D4-4E4E-AD0E-E0CB621440FD}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\FontExt.dll,-8007

HomeGroup

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.HomeGroup
  • GUID: {67CA7650-96E6-4FDD-BB43-A8E774F73A57}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\hgcpl.dll,-1

Indexing Options

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.IndexingOptions
  • GUID: {87D66A43-7B11-4A28-9811-C86EE395ACF7}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\srchadmin.dll,-601

Infrared

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Infrared
  • GUID: {A0275511-0E86-4ECA-97C2-ECD8F1221D08}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\irprops.cpl,-1

Internet Options

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.InternetOptions
  • GUID: {A3DD4F92-658A-410F-84FD-6FBBBEF2FFFE}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @C:\Windows\System32\inetcpl.cpl,-4312
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    1 Security
    2 Privacy
    3 Content
    4 Connections
    5 Programs
    6 Advanced

     

iSCSI Initiator

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.iSCSIInitiator
  • GUID: {A304259D-52B8-4526-8B1A-A1D6CECC8243}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\iscsicpl.dll,-5001

iSNS Server

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.iSNSServer
  • GUID: {0D2A3442-5181-4E3A-9BD4-83BD10AF3D76}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\isnssrv.dll,-5005
  • This Control Panel item will be seen only in server versions of Windows.

Keyboard

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Keyboard
  • GUID: {725BE8F7-668E-4C7B-8F90-46BDB0936430}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\main.cpl,-102

Language

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Language
  • GUID: {BF782CC9-5A52-4A17-806C-2A894FFEEAC5}
  • Supported OS: Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\UserLanguagesCpl.dll,-1

Location Settings

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.LocationSettings
  • GUID: {E9950154-C418-419e-A90A-20C5287AE24B}
  • Supported OS: Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\SensorsCpl.dll,-1

Mouse

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Mouse
  • GUID: {6C8EEC18-8D75-41B2-A177-8831D59D2D50}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\main.cpl,-100
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    1 Pointers
    2 Pointer Options
    3 Wheel
    4 Hardware

     

MPIOConfiguration

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.MPIOConfiguration
  • GUID: {AB3BE6AA-7561-4838-AB77-ACF8427DF426}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\mpiocpl.dll,-1000
  • This Control Panel item will be seen only in server versions of Windows.

Network and Sharing Center

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.NetworkAndSharingCenter
  • GUID: {8E908FC9-BECC-40f6-915B-F4CA0E70D03D}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\netcenter.dll,-1
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    Advanced Advanced sharing settings
    ShareMedia Media streaming options

     

Notification Area Icons

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.NotificationAreaIcons
  • GUID: {05d7b0f4-2121-4eff-bf6b-ed3f69b894d9}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\taskbarcpl.dll,-1

Pen and Touch

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.PenAndTouch
  • GUID: {F82DF8F7-8B9F-442E-A48C-818EA735FF9B}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\tabletpc.cpl,-10103
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    1 Flicks
    2 Handwriting

     

Personalization

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Personalization
  • GUID: {ED834ED6-4B5A-4bfe-8F11-A626DCB6A921}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\themecpl.dll,-1
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    pageColorization Color and Appearance
    pageWallpaper Desktop Background

     

Phone and Modem

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.PhoneAndModem
  • GUID: {40419485-C444-4567-851A-2DD7BFA1684D}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\telephon.cpl,-1
  • The window that this value launches is titled “Location Information” in versions of Windows prior to Windows 8. The item’s UI is considerably changed as of Windows 8.

Power Options

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.PowerOptions
  • GUID: {025A5937-A6BE-4686-A844-36FE4BEC8B6D}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\powercpl.dll,-1
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    pageGlobalSettings System Settings
    pagePlanSettings Edit Plan Settings

     

Programs and Features

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.ProgramsAndFeatures
  • GUID: {7b81be6a-ce2b-4676-a29e-eb907a5126c5}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%systemroot%\system32\appwiz.cpl,-159
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    ::{D450A8A1-9568-45C7-9C0E-B4F9FB4537BD} Installed Updates

     

Recovery

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Recovery
  • GUID: {9FE63AFD-59CF-4419-9775-ABCC3849F861}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\recovery.dll,-101

Region

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.RegionAndLanguage
  • GUID: {62D8ED13-C9D0-4CE8-A914-47DD628FB1B0}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\intl.cpl,-1
  • The Region and Language item found in Windows 7 was split as of Windows 8. Microsoft.RegionAndLanguage now launches the Region item. To launch the Language item, use Microsoft.Language.
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    1 Location
    2 Administrative

     

RemoteApp and Desktop Connections

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.RemoteAppAndDesktopConnections
  • GUID: {241D7C96-F8BF-4F85-B01F-E2B043341A4B}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\tsworkspace.dll,-15300

Sound

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Sound
  • GUID: {F2DDFC82-8F12-4CDD-B7DC-D4FE1425AA4D}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\mmsys.cpl,-300

Speech Recognition

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.SpeechRecognition
  • GUID: {58E3C745-D971-4081-9034-86E34B30836A}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\Speech\SpeechUX\speechuxcpl.dll,-1

Storage Spaces

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.StorageSpaces
  • GUID: {F942C606-0914-47AB-BE56-1321B8035096}
  • Supported OS: Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @C:\Windows\System32\SpaceControl.dll,-1

Sync Center

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.SyncCenter
  • GUID: {9C73F5E5-7AE7-4E32-A8E8-8D23B85255BF}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\SyncCenter.dll,-3000

System

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.System
  • GUID: {BB06C0E4-D293-4f75-8A90-CB05B6477EEE}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\systemcpl.dll,-1

Tablet PC Settings

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.TabletPCSettings
  • GUID: {80F3F1D5-FECA-45F3-BC32-752C152E456E}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\tabletpc.cpl,-10100

Taskbar and Navigation

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Taskbar
  • GUID: {0DF44EAA-FF21-4412-828E-260A8728E7F1}
  • Supported OS: Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\shell32.dll,-32517

Troubleshooting

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.Troubleshooting
  • GUID: {C58C4893-3BE0-4B45-ABB5-A63E4B8C8651}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\DiagCpl.dll,-1
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    HistoryPage History

     

TSAppInstall

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.TSAppInstall
  • GUID: {BAA884F4-3432-48b8-AA72-9BF20EEF31D5}
  • Supported OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%systemroot%\system32\tsappinstall.exe,-2001

User Accounts

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.UserAccounts
  • GUID: {60632754-c523-4b62-b45c-4172da012619}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\usercpl.dll,-1

Windows Anytime Upgrade

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.WindowsAnytimeUpgrade
  • GUID: {BE122A0E-4503-11DA-8BDE-F66BAD1E3F3A}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @$(resourceString._SYS_MOD_PATH),-1

Windows Defender

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.WindowsDefender
  • GUID: {D8559EB9-20C0-410E-BEDA-7ED416AECC2A}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%ProgramFiles%\Windows Defender\MsMpRes.dll,-104

Windows Firewall

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.WindowsFirewall
  • GUID: {4026492F-2F69-46B8-B9BF-5654FC07E423}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @C:\Windows\system32\FirewallControlPanel.dll,-12122
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    pageConfigureApps Allowed apps

     

Windows Mobility Center

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.MobilityCenter
  • GUID: {5ea4f148-308c-46d7-98a9-49041b1dd468}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\mblctr.exe,-1002

Windows To Go

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.PortableWorkspaceCreator
  • GUID: {8E0C279D-0BD1-43C3-9EBD-31C3DC5B8A77}
  • Supported OS: Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\pwcreator.exe,-151

Windows Update

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.WindowsUpdate
  • GUID: {36eef7db-88ad-4e81-ad49-0e313f0c35f8}
  • Supported OS: Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\wucltux.dll,-1
  • Pages
    Page Name Opens
    pageSettings Change settings
    pageUpdateHistory View update history

     

Work Folders

  • Canonical name: Microsoft.WorkFolders
  • GUID: {ECDB0924-4208-451E-8EE0-373C0956DE16}
  • Supported OS: Windows 8.1
  • Module name: @C:\Windows\System32\WorkfoldersControl.dll,-1

Deprecated Control Panel Canonical Names

The following are canonical names that are no longer in use as of Windows 8.1. Some have been removed altogether. Others have been remapped in these situations:

  • A Control Panel item is renamed. The renamed item is given a new canonical name but keeps the same GUID. In this case, the old canonical name launches the renamed Control Panel item. Be aware that the item that’s launched might not use the same UI as that item’s older version.
  • The functionality of one or more Control Panel items is moved or consolidated into a new item. In this case, the old canonical name maps to the most appropriate new Control Panel item.
Note Remappings exist for backward compatibility. You should not use deprecated values in new code.
Deprecated canonical name Control Panel Item GUID Notes
Microsoft.AddHardware Add Hardware {7A979262-40CE-46ff-AEEE-7884AC3B6136} Maps to Microsoft.DevicesAndPrinters as of Windows 7.
Microsoft.AudioDevicesAndSoundThemes Sound {F2DDFC82-8F12-4CDD-B7DC-D4FE1425AA4D} Maps to Microsoft.Sound as of Windows 7.
Microsoft.BackupAndRestoreCenter/Microsoft.BackupAndRestore Backup and Restore Center {B98A2BEA-7D42-4558-8BD1-832F41BAC6FD} Microsoft.BackupAndRestoreCenter maps to Microsoft.BackupAndRestore in Windows 7. Both are removed as of Windows 8; use Microsoft.FileHistory instead.
Microsoft.CardSpace Windows CardSpace {78CB147A-98EA-4AA6-B0DF-C8681F69341C} Removed as of Windows 8.
Microsoft.DesktopGadgets Desktop Gadgets {37efd44d-ef8d-41b1-940d-96973a50e9e0} Removed as of Windows 8.
Microsoft.GetProgramsOnline Windows Marketplace {3e7efb4c-faf1-453d-89eb-56026875ef90} Removed as of Windows 7.
Microsoft.InfraredOptions Infrared {A0275511-0E86-4ECA-97C2-ECD8F1221D08} Maps to Microsoft.Infrared as of Windows 7.
Microsoft.LocationAndOtherSensors Location and Other Sensors {E9950154-C418-419e-A90A-20C5287AE24B} Maps to Microsoft.LocationSettings as of Windows 8.
Microsoft.PenAndInputDevices Pen and Input Devices {F82DF8F7-8B9F-442E-A48C-818EA735FF9B} Maps to Microsoft.PenAndTouch as of Windows 7.
Microsoft.PeopleNearMe People Near Me {5224F545-A443-4859-BA23-7B5A95BDC8EF} Removed as of Windows 8.
Microsoft.PerformanceInformationAndTools Performance Information and Tools {78F3955E-3B90-4184-BD14-5397C15F1EFC} Removed as of Windows 8.1.
Microsoft.PhoneAndModemOptions Phone and Modem {40419485-C444-4567-851A-2DD7BFA1684D} Maps to Microsoft.PhoneAndModem as of Windows 7.
Microsoft.Printers Printers {2227A280-3AEA-1069-A2DE-08002B30309D} Maps to Microsoft.DevicesAndPrinters as of Windows 7.
Microsoft.ProblemReportsAndSolutions Problem Reports and Solutions {FCFEECAE-EE1B-4849-AE50-685DCF7717EC} Maps to Microsoft.ActionCenter as of Windows 7.
Microsoft.RegionalAndLanguageOptions Regional and Language Options {62D8ED13-C9D0-4CE8-A914-47DD628FB1B0} Maps to Microsoft.RegionAndLanguage as of Windows 7. Note that as of Windows 8, Region and Language were each given their own Control Panel item. Both Microsoft.RegionalAndLanguageOptions and Microsoft.RegionAndLanguage currently open the Region item. You must use Microsoft.Language to access the Language item.
Microsoft.SecurityCenter Windows Security Center {087DA31B-0DD3-4537-8E23-64A18591F88B} Maps to Microsoft.ActionCenter as of Windows 7.
Microsoft.SpeechRecognitionOptions Speech Recognition Options {58E3C745-D971-4081-9034-86E34B30836A} Maps to Microsoft.SpeechRecognition as of Windows 7.
Microsoft.TaskbarAndStartMenu Taskbar and Start Menu {0DF44EAA-FF21-4412-828E-260A8728E7F1} Maps to Microsoft.Taskbar as of Windows 8.
Microsoft.WelcomeCenter Welcome Center {CB1B7F8C-C50A-4176-B604-9E24DEE8D4D1} Maps to Microsoft.GettingStarted in Windows 7. Launches the Control Panel home page as of Windows 8.
Microsoft.WindowsSidebarProperties Windows Sidebar Properties {37efd44d-ef8d-41b1-940d-96973a50e9e0} Maps to Microsoft.DesktopGadgets in Windows 7. Removed as of Windows 8.
Microsoft.WindowsSideShow Windows SideShow {E95A4861-D57A-4be1-AD0F-35267E261739} Feature deprecated in Windows 8, removed as of Windows 8.1.

 

Using Canonical Names in Local Group Policy

As of Windows 7, you can use canonical names to restrict access to individual Control Panel items through group policy. This same procedure can be used in Windows Vista, but you have to use the module name instead of the canonical name.

Hiding individual Control Panel items

Use this method if you want to show more Control Panel items than you want to hide.

  1. Run the Gpedit.msc file to launch the Local Group Policy Editor. You can also type “group policy” at the Windows 8.1 Start screen and select Edit group policy from the search results.
  2. Select User Configuration > Administrative Templates > Control Panel.
  3. Select Hide specified Control Panel items.
  4. In the Hide Specified Control Panel Items window that opens, click Enabled.
  5. Click the Show button in the Options panel to show the list of disallowed Control Panel items.
  6. In the Show Contents window that opens, type a canonical name into the Value column. Repeat as necessary.
  7. Click OK.

Showing individual Control Panel items

Use this method if you want to hide more Control Panel items than you want to show.

  1. Run the Gpedit.msc file to launch the Local Group Policy Editor. You can also type “group policy” at the Windows 8.1 Start screen and select Edit group policy from the search results.
  2. Select User Configuration > Administrative Templates > Control Panel.
  3. Select Show only specified Control Panel items.
  4. In the Show Only Specified Control Panel Items window that opens, click Enabled. This hides everything in the Control Panel.
  5. Click the Show button in the Options panel to show the list of allowed Control Panel items.
  6. In the Show Contents window that opens, type a canonical name into the Value column. Repeat as necessary.
  7. Click OK.

If you want to remove all of the entries that you’ve added to a Show or Hide Control Panel items list, return to the screen in step 4 and select Not Configured to clear the list. If you want to retain your entries but suspend the restrictions, select Disabled.

Remarks

You might see items in your Control Panel that are not listed here. Those items are not part of Windows, but instead are added during the installation of various software and hardware, such as Microsoft Office or a video card. Non-Windows Control Panel items may or may not have a canonical name. To find the canonical name of a Control Panel item not listed here, look in the registry under these paths:

HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT
   CLSID
      {CLSID of the Control Panel item}
         System.ApplicationName
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
   SOFTWARE
      Classes
         CLSID
            {CLSID of the Control Panel item}
               System.ApplicationName

For more information that can help you discover the necessary CLSIDs, see How to Register Executable Control Panel Items and How to Register DLL Control Panel Items.

Windows XP System File Reference



Who knows when ms will remove this from their servers.

Quote of System Files Reference

System Files Reference

114 out of 145 rated this helpful Rate this topic
Published: November 03, 2005

When you install the Microsoft Windows XP Professional operating system, the Setup program creates folders on your system drive into which it places files that the system requires. Knowing the names and locations of essential system files can help you understand and troubleshoot your Windows XP Professional installation.

For information on how to obtain the Windows XP Professional Resource Kit in its entirety, please see http://www.microsoft.com/mspress/books/6795.asp.

Bb457124.3squares(en-us,TechNet.10).gif

On This Page

on original ms page:
Related Information Related Information
System Files System Files
Startup Files Startup Files
Folders on the Local Disk Folders on the Local Disk
Windows Folder Windows Folder
System32 Folder System32 Folder
Extracting Files from the Operating System CD Extracting Files from the Operating System CD
Using the Copy Command in Recovery Console Using the Copy Command in Recovery Console
Using the Expand Command in Recovery Console Using the Expand Command in Recovery Console
Additional Resources Additional Resources

Related Information

  • For information about troubleshooting Startup and running Recovery Console, see Chapter 29, “Troubleshooting the Startup Process.”
  • For information about general troubleshooting concepts and strategies, see Chapter 27, “Understanding Troubleshooting.”

System Files

The following files are core components of the Windows XP Professional operating system. If you install Windows XP Professional as an upgrade from Microsoft Windows 2000 or earlier, the files listed in Table A-1 are located in the Windows\System32 folder or in Winnt\System32.

Table A-1 Essential System Files

File Name Description
Ntoskrnl.exe Executive and kernel.
Ntkrnlpa.exe Executive and kernel with support for Physical Address Extension (PAE), which allows addressing of more than 4 gigabytes (GB) of physical memory.
Hal.dll Hardware abstraction layer.
Win32k.sys Kernel-mode part of the Win32 subsystem.
Ntdll.dll Internal support functions and system service dispatch stubs to executive functions.
Kernel32.dll

Advapi32.dll

User32.dll

Gdi32.dll

Core Win32 subsystem DLLs.

Startup Files

The following files are essential to the startup process. All files listed in Table A-2 are located in the boot or root directory (for example, C:\) of your Windows XP Professional installation.

Table A-2 Essential Startup Files

File Name Description
Ntldr Reads the Boot.ini file, presents the boot menu, and loads Ntoskrnl.exe, Bootvid.dll, Hal.dll, and boot-start device drivers.
Boot.ini Contains options for starting the version of Windows that Setup installs and any preexisting Windows installations.
Ntdetect.com After the boot selection is made, Ntldr loads and executes this 16-bit real-mode program to query the computer for basic device and configuration information. This information includes the following:

  • The time and date information stored in the system’s CMOS (nonvolatile memory).
  • The types of buses (for example, ISA, PCI, EISA, Micro Channel Architecture [MCA]) on the system and identifiers for devices attached to the buses.
  • The number, size, and type of disk drives on the system.
  • The types of mouse input devices connected to the system.
  • The number and type of parallel ports configured on the system.
Pagefile.sys Contains memory data that Windows is unable to fit into physical RAM. During Startup, the virtual memory manager moves data in and out of the paging file to optimize the amount of physical memory available to the operating system and applications.
Ntbootdd.sys If either the boot or system drives are SCSI-based, Ntldr loads this file and uses it instead of the boot-code functions for disk access.

Folders on the Local Disk

Setup creates the following folders (shown in Table A-3) on your local disk by default when installing Windows XP Professional.

Note When Windows XP Professional is installed as an upgrade from Windows 2000 or earlier, Setup installs the operating system into the existing Winnt folder. A Windows folder is not created.

Table A-3 Default Local Disk Folders

Folder Name Contents
Documents and Settings Account information for each user who is granted access on the computer. Each user account is represented by a subfolder assigned the user name and called the user profile. Folders under each user account folder include My Documents, Desktop, and Start Menu.
Program Files Installed applications, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer or Microsoft Office.
WINDOWS or WINNT Entire operating system.

Windows Folder

The Windows folder and its subfolders contain the operating system files for your Windows XP Professional installation (as shown in Table A-4).

Table A-4 Windows Folder and Subfolders

Folder Name Contents
WINDOWS or WINNT Miscellaneous operating system and application files (for example, Control.ini, Desktop.ini, Notepad.exe, and System.ini files)
Addins ActiveX controls (.ocx) files
AppPatch Application compatibility files
Config Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) instrument definition files
Connection Wizard Internet connection files that are used when a computer starts Windows for the first time
CSC Offline files that are used during client-side caching
Cursors Cursor and icon files
Debug Log files
Downloaded Program Files Downloaded program files
Driver Cache Uninstalled driver files
ehome Used by Windows Media Center Edition
Fonts All font files
Help Help files
Ime Language files
ime (x86) Language files for x86-based systems
inf Device driver INF files
Installer Cached Windows Installer (.MSI) files
Java Java files
Media Sound and music files (for example: *.wav and *.midi)
MS Installation folder for Microsoft Systems Management Server (SMS) client
Msagent Microsoft Agent files (Microsoft Agent is a set of programmable software services that support the presentation of interactive animated characters within the Microsoft Windows interface.)
Msapps Files that support backward compatibility in applications
Mui Multi-user interface files
Offline Web Pages Downloaded Web pages for offline reading
PCHEALTH Help and Support Center files
PeerNet MSSL 2.0 files
PIF Program information files (PIFs) for MS-DOS-based programs
Prefetch Data files related to enhancing the speed at which applications start
Provisioning Schemas for creating wireless profiles
Registration COM+ files. (COM+ files are enhancements to the Microsoft Component Object Model [COM].)
Repair Registry backup files (These files are updated if you use NTBackup and choose to back up system state files.)
Resources User interface files
SchCache Schema cache folder
Security Log files, templates for snap-ins, and security database files
Setupupd Dynamic Update storage location
SoftwareDistribution Used by Automatic Updates
Srchasst Search assistant files
System Backward-compatibility files related to the System folder (for example, applications that look for a System folder)
system32 Core operating system files (For more information, see “System32 Folder” later in this appendix.)
Tasks Scheduled Task files
Temp Temporary files
twain_32 Imaging files (for scanners)
Web Printer and wallpaper files
WinSxS Side by Side (shared components)

System32 Folder

The System32 folder and its subfolders contain the core operating system files for your Windows XP Professional installation. Table A-5 describes the System32 files.

Table A-5 System32 Folder and Subfolders

Folder Name Contents
system32 Essential system files (for example, Hal.dll and Ntoskrnl.exe files).
1025, 1028, 1031, 1033, 1037, 1041, 1053, 2052, 3076 Localization (language) files for a specific language, corresponding to the number assigned to this folder. This folder remains empty unless Windows XP Professional is localized for this particular language.
CatRoot Catalog files and signature files.
CatRoot2 Catalog files and signature files.
Com Component Object Model (COM) objects.
Config Registry files and event logs.
Dhcp DHCP database files.
DirectX DirectX files.
Dllcache Windows File Protection backup files.
Drivers Installed drivers.
Export Encryption Pack installation files.
Group Policy Group Policy administrative templates and script files.
Ias Internet Authentication Service files.
Icsxml Universal Plug and Play files.
Ime Language files.
Inetsrv Internet Information Services files.
Macromed Macromedia files.
Microsoft Cryptography files.
MsDtc Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator files.
Mui Multi-user interface files.
Npp Network Monitor and trace files.
NtmsData Removable Storage Manager (RSM) database.
Oobe Windows Welcome files.
Ras Remote access server encryption files.
RemoteStorage Remote Storage Service (RSS) database.
Restore Data files or System Restore–related files.
Rpcproxy RPC Proxy files (RPCProxy.dll).
Setup Optional component manager files.
ShellExt Shell extension components.
Smsmsgs SMS Site Component Manager files.
SoftwareDistribution Used by Automatic Updates (Windows XP Service Pack 2).
Spool Print spooling files.
Usmt User State Migration tool.
Wbem Web-based Enterprise Management data files. Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) is the Microsoft implementation of WBEM.
Wins WINS database files.

Extracting Files from the Operating System CD

It is usually recommended that you use Add or Remove Programs in Control Panel to install and uninstall components, applications, and support software from the Windows XP Professional operating system CD. If system files are missing or damaged, you can run Windows XP Professional Setup from the operating system CD and choose the option to repair your existing installation. In some cases, however, you might need to extract a system or startup file directly from the operating system CD.

Warning If you install incorrect versions of system or startup files or if you install files to incorrect locations, your system might not operate as expected or might not start. Use the method described in this section only if your product support representative indicates that it is necessary to manually retrieve a compressed file from your operating system CD.

The /i386 folder on your Windows XP Professional operating system CD contains system and startup files in compressed form. If you need to replace a file in your Windows XP Professional installation, you can use the copy or expand command in Recovery Console to extract the needed file from the operating system CD. Use the copy command unless you are extracting a file from a .cab file, such as Driver.cab. When extracting a file from a .cab file, use the expand command.

When you use Recovery Console to extract a compressed file from the operating system CD, you must use exact file names for the compressed and uncompressed files. Table A-6 illustrates compressed and uncompressed file names.

Table A-6 Compressed and Uncompressed File Names

Compressed File Name Uncompressed File Name
Ntoskrnl.ex_ Ntoskrnl.exe
Hal.dl_ Hal.dll

Using the Copy Command in Recovery Console

If a file is not within a .cab file, you can use the copy command in Recovery Console to extract the file from the operating system CD and place it on your local disk in a Windows XP Professional installation. When you use the copy command to extract a file to a destination on your local disk, the file is automatically uncompressed. For more information about running Recovery Console, including how to add it to your startup options, see Chapter 29, “Troubleshooting the Startup Process.”

Use the copy command with the following syntax:

copy source [destination]

Table A-7 describes the parameters that you can use with the copy command.

Table A-7 Parameters for the Copy Command

Parameter Description
Source Specifies the file to be copied
Destination Specifies the directory and/or file name for the new file

Source can be removable media, any directory within the System32 directory of the current Windows installation, the root of any drive, the local installation sources, or the Cmdcons folder. (The C:\Cmdcons folder is the Recovery Console installation folder.)

Destination can be any directory within the System32 directories of the current Windows installation, the root of any drive, the local installation sources, or the Cmdcons folder. If you do not specify a destination, the command defaults to the current directory. The copy command prompts you if the destination file already exists. The destination cannot be removable media.

The copy command does not support replaceable parameters (wildcards).

Using the Expand Command in Recovery Console

To extract a file from a .cab file on the operating system CD and place it on your local disk in a Windows XP Professional installation, start Recovery Console and use the expand command. When you use the expand command to extract a file to a destination on your local disk, the file is automatically uncompressed. For more information about running Recovery Console, including how to add it to your startup options, see Chapter 29, “Troubleshooting the Startup Process.”

Use the expand command with the following syntax:

expand source [/f:filespec][destination][/y][/d]

Tables A-8 describes the parameters that you can use with the expand command.

Tables A-8 Parameters for the Expand Command

Parameter Description
source Specifies the file that you want to expand. Cannot include wildcards.
destination Specifies the directory for the new file; the default is the current directory.
/y Suppresses the overwrite prompt when you expand or extract files.
/f:filespec If the source contains more than one file, this parameter is required to identify the specific file or files that you want to expand. Can include wildcards.
/d Lists the files contained in the cabinet file without expanding it or extracting from it.
  • The destination can be any folder within the System32 folder of the current Windows installation, the root of any drive, the local installation sources, or the Cmdcons folder.
  • The destination cannot be removable media.
  • The destination file cannot be read-only. Use the Attrib command to remove the read-only attribute.
  • If the destination file already exists, the expand command prompts you for confirmation to overwrite the file unless you include the /y parameter.

Additional Resources

The following resources contain additional information related to this appendix.

Related Information

  • Chapter 27, “Understanding Troubleshooting.”
  • Appendix C, “Tools for Troubleshooting.”
  • Chapter 28, “Troubleshooting Disks and File Systems.”
  • Chapter 29, “Troubleshooting the Startup Process.”
  • Windows XP Professional Help and Support Center, for more information about running and troubleshooting Windows XP Professional. Search using the keywords troubleshooting and recovery console.

Mapped drives (incl net use) missing from elevated processes eg UAC cmd run as administrator



Mapped drives created in Windows Explorer Tools -> Map network drive OR via command prompt (cmd.exe) net use command will not be visible in programs that “run as administrator” ie with elevated privileges.

Eg if you do Start Orb -> type “cmd” without the quotes into the search box -> right click on cmd and select “run as administrator”

…then you will get an command prompt running with elevated privileges.

(There other other ways to get an elevated cmd prompt if you dont want to be bothered by UAC.)

If you do net use in that command prompt to show mapped netowrk drives, you wont see the same as you see in un-elevated or in windows explorer.

The key tidbit going on here is that an administrtor accoutn has 2 access tokens, a filtered and regular. Regular is priviledged / elevated. Filtered has the privs filered out, if you will.

And mapped drives are associated with only 1 particular access token; 1 or the other, not both.

A key to understanding this mechanism is

This article is so important, i quote it below so that if it ever goes away it’ll still be here. And i quote it with its user comments, cuz they are also key, in this case. Good, hi quality comments.

One of the places this technet article is referecned is

Microsoft KB

That was a technet article. Microsoft’s offical KB on it is here, but IMHO not as informative (and contains a bug)

One of the places this KB article is referecned is


Unfortunately the suggestion in this KB article is wrong, i think. It suggests to do net use without a drive letter:

To work around this issue, use the net use command together with a UNC name to access the network location. For example, at a command prompt, type the following command, and then press Enter:

net use \\COMPUTERNAME\SHARENAME /user:USERNAME

I just tried this and it did not make the \\COMPUTERNAME\SHARENAME appear in the other net use listing.

Now it’s possible that even tho it did not appear in the net use listing, it did log me in in both prived and non-prived. I did not test this, cuz i was already logged in in both prived and non-prived and so it requires logging out to test and i cant do that right now for other reasons.


Quote of technet article

NOTE: the comments have important info, eg, some, but not all, ppl see the logon script that maps drives running at elevated privs, so that they see mapped drives elevated but not un-elevated; all hinges on what access token is in use when the logon script runs

Some Programs Cannot Access Network Locations When UAC Is Enabled

47 out of 70 rated this helpful Rate this topic

Updated: November 16, 2009

Applies To: Windows Server 2008 R2

Symptom

After you turn on User Account Control (UAC) in Windows Vista or Windows 7, programs may not be able to access some network locations. This problem may also occur when you use the command prompt to access a network location.

Cause

This problem occurs because UAC treats members of the Administrators group as standard users. Therefore, network shares that are mapped by logon scripts are shared with the standard user access token instead of with the full administrator access token.

When a member of the Administrators group logs on to a computer running Windows Vista or Windows 7 that has UAC enabled, the user runs as a standard user. Standard users are members of the Users group. If you are a member of the Administrators group and you want to perform a task that requires a full administrator access token, UAC prompts you for approval. For example, if you try to edit security policies on the computer, you are prompted. If you approve the action in the User Account Control dialog box, you can then complete the administrative task by using the full administrator access token.

When an administrator logs on to a computer running Windows Vista or Windows 7, the Local Security Authority (LSA) creates two access tokens. If LSA is notified that the user is a member of the Administrators group, LSA creates the second logon that has the administrator rights removed (filtered). This filtered access token is used to start the user’s desktop. Applications can use the full administrator access token if the administrator user provides approval in a User Account Control dialog box.

If a user is logged on to a computer running Windows Vista or Windows 7 and if UAC is enabled, a program that uses the user’s filtered access token and a program that uses the user’s full administrator access token can run at the same time. Because LSA created the access tokens during two separate logon sessions, the access tokens contain separate logon IDs.

When network shares are mapped, they are linked to the current logon session for the current process access token. This means that if a user uses the command prompt (cmd.exe) together with the filtered access token to map a network share, the network share is not mapped for processes that run with the full administrator access token.

Resolution

ImportantImportant
This section contains steps that modify the registry. Incorrectly editing the registry may severely damage your system or make your system unsafe. Before making changes to the registry, you should back up any data on the computer. For more information about how to back up and restore the registry, see article 322756 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=133378).

To work around this problem, configure the EnableLinkedConnections registry value. This value enables Windows Vista and Windows 7 to share network connections between the filtered access token and the full administrator access token for a member of the Administrators group. After you configure this registry value, LSA checks whether there is another access token that is associated with the current user session if a network resource is mapped to an access token. If LSA determines that there is a linked access token, it adds the network share to the linked location.

To configure the EnableLinkedConnections registry value

  1. Click Start, type regedit in the Start programs and files box, and then press ENTER.
  2. Locate and then right-click the registry subkey HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\System.
  3. Point to New, and then click DWORD Value.
  4. Type EnableLinkedConnections, and then press ENTER.
  5. Right-click EnableLinkedConnections, and then click Modify.
  6. In the Value data box, type 1, and then click OK.
  7. Exit Registry Editor, and then restart the computer.

 

Community Additions

ADD

Doesn’t work properly with Windows 8.x

On Windows 8 and Windows 8.1, ‘EnableLinkedConnections’ does enable mapped drives to appear for local Administrators however drives mapped to a subfolder of a share do not then map correctly. So if you try to map a drive to \\server\share\subfolder the mapped drive appears but is incorrectly mapped to \\server\share instead.
4/4/2014

Does This Open A Security Vulnerability?

There are articles all over the internet that quote this registry hack. Most (superuser.com, vistaheads.com, intelliadmin.com, winhelponline.com, and notably social.technet.microsoft.com) also state that using it opens a security hole.
Microsoft does not discuss (in the article above) whether this creates a security vulnerability or what it might be. I spent all morning trying to find this original article to find out what the security risk might be. I’m disappointed that it is not discussed.
So here are some questions:
• If there is a risk, what is it?
• If there is no risk, why isn’t it the default?
• Where did all those other sites get the idea that it is potentially dangerous?

6/25/2013

Article seems correct to me.

I am seeing results consistent with the article and different than the two previous comments. I am a domain admin and when I log in, the drives mapped in the login script are available in Explorer and at a command prompt without elevated privileges. When I run a command prompt as administrator, the drives are not available. In the elevated command window, the drives are listed by net use, but show a status of unavailable.
1/12/2013

Windows 7, 64bit and 32bit

Thank you, this solved my problem.

Some additonal information: I had a problem on my Windows 7 64bit system where mapped drives would not show when using the Win32Api function: GetLogicalDrives().

By adding the registry key, I was glad to see that my mapped drives were shown again.

However, on a my 32bit system, which does not have this registry key, mapped drives do get shown when using the Win32Api GetLogicalDrives() function…

10/2/2012

Problem description is misstated.

This problem description in this article needs to be updated. Some of the statements in it are the exact opposite of the truth about how UAC works.

Drives mapped by logon scripts are only available to processes the are launched using UAC elevation or Run As Administrator. However, this article incorrectly states the reverse — that they are only accessible to processes started by the filtered logon token. To verify this, create a simple logon script to map a drive. Make sure that this drive has not been manually mapped already. Then logon to the computer with UAC turned on using and administrator account. Open Windows Explorer and there will be no mapped drive shown there because the drive is not accessible to the filtered token which is what Windows Explorer and non-elevated processes use to run. Open a command prompt and try to change the directory to the mapped drive. Again, it is not accessible. However, if you open a command prompt using Run As Administrator, you will see that you are able to change the directory to the mapped drive.

Likewise, if you launch a program that requires UAC elevation or run a program as administrator, you will also see that drives mapped by logon scripts are available to those programs,but not to programs that do not run elevated.
Please also note that drives that are mapped manually using Windows Explorer or net use in an unelevated command prompt are not available to processes that use the elevated token (elevated through UAC or using Run As Administrator). To test, manually map a drive through Windows Explorer and launch a program that prompts for UAC elevation or use Run As Administrator. Using the program, try to open a file on the mapped drive. You will notice that the mapped drive is not available. However, if you open an elevated command prompt and then use the net use command to map a drive, it will then be available to the elevated program.

8/29/2012

Logon scripts and UAC

The text is incorrect imho. Windows 7 behaves like this: the logon script runs at the elevated account and mappings are made using this. After logon explorer starts with the standard account. Missing the registry key – the standard account does not see the mappings. Running an elevated cmd prompt reveals the mappings.

Important to note: the same behaviour is observed for accounts that are member of the Power Users group. No special permissions are given to the group but a logon script runs as Power Users, after logon the standard account does not see the mappings. There seems to be no way to elevate to a Power User. Hard to explain to your users. Ouch.
Best use the EnableLinkedConnections registry key to avoid this.

4/13/2011

How to get the Flash version update notification pop-up window to appear at will, manually



Adobe will prompt you from time to time when a new update to Flash Player is available. When that happens, you should not simply click DOWNLOAD. There’s a better way to get Flash Updates

But, what if, for whatever reason you want to manually make the flash update notifcation pop-up window appear, at will, whenever you want?

It’s a hard search on Google. I only found 2 hits:

  1. Force Manual Update Adobe Flash Player Windows on guidingtech.com
  2. How do I trigger a Flash Player update? in the Adobe Forums (i actually provided the response on this one; same as i included here, below)

My Answer:

In Windows 7,

Start -> type “cmd” into the search box (without the quotes)

Windows should find a program named cmd

Click on it to start command prompt.

A black text window should appear, with a prompt and cursor, like the one below.

cmd_window

At the prompt you want to run the FlashUtil program with the -update plugin argument but the problem is that

  1. The version number changes with each update, and
  2. Over time, adobe changes where in the file system it stores this file

So, you will probably have to search for a similar program. Once you find it, replace mine below with the program you found, and the path you found it in.

The following command works today on my system. As you can see i’m currently on version 14.0.0.145 (I will be upgrading to version 16.0.0.235 today.)

C:\Windows\System32\Macromed\Flash\FlashUtil32_14_0_0_145_plugin.exe -update plugin

Running this command (with the right FlashUtil exe file, once you find it) produces the familiar flash update notification window popup, which looks like this (for the v16.0.0.235 update):

flash_update_notification_window
[This specific example is for the v16.0.0.235 update]

.

Now i would NOT click DOWNLOAD, that’s not the best way to get Flash Updates

RemoteUtilities agent.exe download problem in Mozilla Firefox : false-positive malware detection



RemoteUtilities is my favorite remote access software.

But there was a problem while downloading its “Agent“.

I debugged that problem and posted a workaround on their forum. I’ve quoted it below:

Downloading agent.exe in Firefox results in: blocked may contain a virus or spyware
john kumpf
Posts: 5
Joined: 11/03/2014

12/03/2014 20:35:55

Firefox silently did not download agent.exe file from http://www.remoteutilities.com/download/

The link to the file was: http://www.remoteutilities.com/download/agent.exe

I had to do “Show all downloads” to see this error message.

The error message was:

Quote
Blocked: may contain a virus or spyware

I worked around this problem by reading this article:

http://www.ghacks.net/2014/11/19/bypass-firefoxs-blocked-may-contain-a-virus-or-spyware-message/

What i did: in firefox

Type “about:config” in address bar (without the quotes); hit return.
Click the “I’ll be careful, I promise!” button.
Type “safe” into the search box (without the quotes).
Double click the item “browser.safebrowsing.malware.enabled” to turn it from true to false.

Then i was able to download the agent.exe program.

WiFi (Wireless) Security : WEP WPA WPA2



Terms:

WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy
WPA
WiFi Protected Access
WPA2
WiFi Protected Access II
WPS
WiFi Protected Setup – Unlike the others, which encrypt traffic over the air from your device (eg, laptop, tablet, phone, Wii, ps3, xbox, tivo) to the wireless router, this one, WPS, is a way of setting up your router for the first time. It was meant to make setup, easy, even push-button, and to set you up, out of the box, with good security, but, sadly, it has a security flaw that makes the network INsecure. Doh!

Timelines:

My interest here is in answering the question “What security should i select?”

Unfortunately there is no one answer because of the timelines of deployment of these technologies.

The securist (is that a word?) is WPA2.

The only reason not to choose WPA2 is OLD DEVICES.

WEP was born in 1999, and was deprecated in 2009.

However, WPA came on the scene 2003, and started to become popular in machines manufactured in 2003 with sales ramp in 2004.

And WPA2 came on the scene in 2004, and started to become popular in machines manufactured in 2004 with sales ramp in 2005.

So if you have a device that’s from 2003 or before (today in year 2014 that’s 11 years ago–a long time in electronics), then that device will not support the strongest security, WPA2. Even if it’s from 2004-2005 it might not.

So if you set up WPA2 on your wireless router, your old devices (or the old devices of your friends and family who visit your home, or customers who visit your business) will not be able to connect.

For devices purchased in the year 2006, i’d say you have a mixed bag.
Some devices will support WPA2 (especially the more expensive ones) some wont (especially the budget-friendly / value ones).
Some devices will support still support WEP (especially the budget-friendly / value ones), and some won’t (especially the more expensive, security conscious ones).

WPA2 is safer than WPA, which is safer than WEP. WPA also has 1 year, maybe 2 year max, jump on WPA2. Meaning, if your devices was purchased in 2003-2006 it might have WPA and not WPA2.

WPA2 became standard in 2006. Most devices manufactured after this time and likely purchased in 2007 and later will be WPA2 compliant. Some of these devices will not even support WEP at all. So if you choose WEP for your wireless router, some NEW devices might not be able to connect.

So, what’s the answer? It depends on the age of the devices trying to connect. But, in 2014, we’re moving solidly into WPA2 and it’s getting more solid all the time, as old devices fade away.

Windows XP
FYI, Windows XP received an update in 2005 to support WPA2. It got an update in 2006. Those years were during the SP2 time frame, and WPA2 was included in the most popular SP3. HOWEVER, the PC hardware that Windows XP is running on has some kind of wireless adapter (all laptops do), and THAT has to also be WPA2 compatible. So, if you bought your laptop in 2005-2006, and you received the WPA2 WXP update, then you STILL might not be able to use WPA2 cuz of your hardware (even tho WXP could do it).

Support for WEP, WPA, WPA2 by year of purchase of device

(Note: year of purchase might be 1 year after year of actual MANUFACTURE.)

year of purchase: 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
security protocol support: WEP yes yes yes yes maybe maybe maybe maybe
WPA no maybe maybe maybe yes yes yes yes
WPA2 no no maybe maybe maybe yes yes yes

References:

How do I search for a task in task scheduler (use autoruns)

Background on Windows Task Scheduler

If you’re already familiar with task scheduler skip to the answer

Windows (7, 8*) has many tasks that are scheduled to run at various times. Programs you install often create new tasks of their own to run at various times. These tasks can be set up to run at various times of day, or on various triggers, like system start, or user logon, or the start of a program (most likely a related program to run in a coordinated fashion).

You start task scheduler by

Windows 7:
clicking on the start orb (or hitting Ctrl-ESC) and typing “task” in the search box and clicking on “Task Scheduler”
Windows 8*:
Going to the tile screen (or hitting Ctrl-ESC) and just typing “task”. It’s in the “Settings” group; click on “Task Scheduler”.

How to search–You Can’t–Use autoruns

The short answer is that Windows Task Scheduler PROVIDES NO WAY TO SEARCH.
But, fortunately, another program Sysinternals autoruns, does.

Download autoruns here: https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb963902.aspx

(it’s a .zip file so after downloading you’ll have to double-click it to open the .zip file and extract all the files in it to a folder that you’ll remember.)

Then double click on autoruns.exe to start it. (not the file with the ‘c’ in it’s name–that one runs the console-only application. That is, unless you like the command line style.)

Click the “Scheduled Tasks” tab to show ownly scheduled tasks.

Click File -> Find (or type Ctrl-F) and search for your task.

Once you find it, you can see the hierarchy in the first column of where it’s stored in regular task scheduler.